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AMERICAN SAILING ASSOCIATION

The American Sailing Association (ASA) is dedicated to promoting safe recreational sailing in the United States by administering an internationally recognized education system. The ASA is an association of sailors, professional sailing instructors, sailing schools and charter companies.
The ASA's education system consists of Certification Standards for students and instructors. These Standards are minimum requirements of knowledge and ability in safety and seamanship. ASA Certification provides documentation of an individual's acquirement and is recognized by many national authorities, charter and insurance companies.
Sailors may join the ASA and take advantage of many valuable member benefits. Contact the ASA for more information.

THE AMERICAN SAILING ASSOCIATION
PO BOX 12079
Marina del Rey, CA 90295-3079
(310) 822-7171
Fax (310) 822-4741
E-mail: info@american-sailing.com
Website: www.asa.com


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Student Sailing Certification Standards

The American Sailing Association administers two Progresive Certification Programs: a Keelboat Sailing Certification Program and a Small Boats & Boards Program. In addition, the ASA oeriodically introduces endorsements to supplement the Keelboat Standards The following are the general descriptions or summaries of these Standards:

BASIC KEELBOAT SAILING STANDARD (101)

Prerequisites: None
General Description: Sailors must sail a boat of about 20 feet in length in light to moderate winds and sea conditions in familiar waters without supervision. A preparatory Standard with no auxiliary power or navigation skills required. Successful candidates earn a National Safe Boating Certificate approved by NASBLA and the U.S. Coast Guard.

BASIC COASTAL CRUISING STANDARD (103)

Prerequisites: Basic Keelboat Sailing Certification
General Description: Sailor must cruise safely in local and regional waters as both skipper and crew on an auxiliary powered sailboat of about 20 to 30 feet in length, in moderate winds and sea conditions.

BAREBOAT CHARTERING STANDARD (104)
(Intermediate Coastal Cruising)

Prerequisites: Basic Keelboat Sailing and Basic Coastal Cruising Certification
General Description: An advanced cruising Standard for individuals with cruising experience. The individual can act as skipper or crew of a 30 - 50 foot boat sailing by day in coastal waters. The Standard includes knowledge of boat systems and maintenance procedures.

COASTAL NAVIGATION STANDARD (105)

Prerequisites: None
General Description: Sailor must demonstrate the navigational theory required to safely navigate a sailing vessel in coastal or inland waters. There is no Sailing Skills part to this Standard and practical application of this sailing knowledge is found in the Advanced Coastal Cruising Standard.

ADVANCED COASTAL CRUISING STANDARD (106)

Prerequisites: Basic Keelboat Sailing, Basic Coastal Cruising, bareboat Chartering and Coastal Navigation
General Description: Sailors must safely act as skipper and crew of a sailing vessel about 30 to 50 feet in length. This is a day and nighttime Standard in coastal and inland waters, in any weather.

CELESTIAL NAVIGATION STANDARD (107)

Prerequisites: None
General Description: Sailor must demonstrate the celestial navigation theory required to safely navigate a sailboat on an offshore passage. The practical application is conducted in the Offshore Passagemaking Standard.

OFFSHORE PASSAGEMAKING STANDARD (108)

Prerequisites: All previous Keelboat and Navigation Standards
General Description: Sailors must safely act as skipper or crew of a sailing vessel on offshore passages in any weather. The Celestial Navigation Standard is performed at this level.

BASIC SMALL BOAT SAILING STANDARD (110)

Prerequisites:None
General Description: Sailors must sail a centerboard or multihull sailboat in light to moderate winds and sea conditions in familiar waters without supervision. A preparatory Standard with no auxiliary power or navigstion skills required.

TRAILERABLE MULTIHULL (113)

Prerequisites:Basic Keelboat, Basic Coastal Cruising
General Description: Sailors must cruise safely in local and regional waters as both skipper and crew on an auxiliary powered catamaran or trimaran of about 20 to 30 feet in length, in moderate winds and sea conditions.

CRUISING CATAMARAN (114)

Prerequisites:Basic Keelboat, Basic Coastal Cruising, Bareboat Chartr
General Description: Sailors must safely act as skipper or crew of a 30 -50 foot catamaran sailing by day in coastal waters. The Standard includes knowledge of boat systems and maintenance procedures. This is an endorsement to 104 and 113 is not required.
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BASIC KEELBOAT SAILING STANDARD (101)

    Prerequisites: None
    General Description: Sailors must sail a boat of about 20 feet in length in light to moderate winds and sea conditions in familiar waters without supervision. A preparatory Standard with no auxiliary power or navigation skills required. Successful candidates earn a National Safe Boating Certificate approved by NASBLA and the U.S. Coast Guard.

SAILING KNOWLEDGE

A Certified Sailor has successfully demonstrated his or her ability to:

TERMINOLOGY

  1. Identify the following parts of a sailboat:

    - hull- mast - mainsail
    - keel - boom- bow
    - bow pulpit - gooseneck- jib
    - traveller- stern- stern pulpit
    - deck - lifelines- cabin
    - spreaders - shrouds-
    - headstay - forestay- backstay

  2. Describe the functions of the following items on a sailboat:

    - mainsheet - rudder - tiller / wheel
    - boomvang - boom topping lift - jib sheet(s)
    - halyard(s) - winches- fairlead v s. padeye
    - downhaul - outhaul- cunningham
    - stays / shrouds- shackle- telltails
    - spring / breast lines- fenders - cleats

  3. Define the following terms:

    - port- starboard- skipper
    - helmsman- crew- forward
    - aft- coming about- gybing
    - running rigging- standing rigging- heel
    - ahead- abeam- astern
    - windward- leeward- beam

  4. Identify the following sails and parts of a sail:

    - mainsail- jib- storm jib
    - spinnaker- genoa- hanks
    - battens - batten packets - bolt rope
    - luff- leech- foot
    - head- tack- clew

  5. Explain the following terms and points of sail and identify them from diagrams:

    - in-irons- head to wind- luffing
    - close hauled- close reach- beam reach
    - broad reach- running- starboard tack
    - port tack- windward boat- leeward boat
    - heading up- heading down / bearing away- sailing by the lee

  • Apply the Navigation Rules (International and Inland Navigational Rules for prevention of collision) by means of diagrams in the following situations and identify the sailboat or powerboat that is the "stand-on" and "give-way" boat.
    • port tack and starboard tack sailboats
    • windward and leeward sailboats
    • overtaking situation
    • boat on the right (danger zone)
    • boats meeting head-on

  • Apply Rule 5 (Look-out Rule) contained in the Navigation Rules (International and Inland Navigation Rules for prevention of collision)
  • Describe the actions to be taken when sailing in the vicinity of commercial shipping (Rule 9. Nav. Rules)
  • Define hull identification number.
  • Describe the differance between planing and displacement hulls.
  • Describe proper means of waste disposal including penalties for improper disposal and means for Notification of authorities in the event of oil spillage.
  • Describe how and when to file a float plan.
  • Describe registration numbers and how to display them.
  • Describe a capacity plate, where to find one and the information which is contained on the plate.
  • Describe an alternate means of determining a boat's passenger capacity.
  • State the federal standards for determining intoxication using Blood Alcohol Content (BAC). What is the BAC of the state in which you sail?
  • Give 5 situations which may be considered negligent operation on the part of boater.
  • Describe when and to whom boating accidents must be reported.
  • Describe under what circumstances an operator must render assistance to another boater in danger.
  • Describe the information an operator should acquire before operating his/her boat in an unfamiliar area. Local Knowledge.
  • Describe where a boater would get the information in the item above.
  • Be able to identify lateral aids to navigation by color, shape and numbering.
  • Be able to identify Safe Water, Information and Regulatory Markers by corol, shape and numbering.
  • List required safety equipment for recreational vessels between 23 and 40 feet.
  • Describe procedures for safety trailing and launching a boat.
  • Describe sound signals used by recreational vessels and their meanings.
  • Identify the location and color of running lights used by recreational vessels.
  • Describe common anchor types and anchoring procedures.

    SAILING SKILLS

    A Certified Sailor has successfully demonstrated his or her ability to:

    GEAR AND EQUIPMENT

  • Select and properly use a personal flotation device.
  • Select proper clothing for sailing.

    SAILING

  • Hoist the basic sails, set appropriate luff tensions, and coil and hang halyards and other lines.
  • Without an Instructor or direction, act as helmsman / skipper and crew on a sailboat using proper commands and responses while sailing away and back to a dock and mooring under various wind directions. Sail a windward / leeward course while performing successful come about and gybe.

    Sample Commands:
    "ease sheets" - "easing sheets"
    "heading-up, sheet in" - "sheeting in"
    "ready about" - "ready"
    "helms-a-lee" - "hard-alee"
    "ready to gybe" - "ready" - "gybe-ho"

  • Lower, fold and stow sails properly.

    MAN OVERBOARD

  • Describe and demonstrate the actions to be taken by a helmsman / skipper when sailing from the time a person falls overboard without warning until the crew member is safely recovered.
    Speed is secondary to safety in performing this procedure.
  • Describe how to get an exhausted person aboard.
  • Steer a sailboat by the lee for 100 yards without gybing.
  • Steer a sailboat moving backwards for 20 yards with sails backed.
  • Secure a sailboat to a dock so as to ensure limited movement and set out fenders properly.

    KNOTS

  • Describe the function of and tie the following knots without assistance:
    • bowline (in less than 20 seconds)
    • figure eight (in less than 15 seconds)
    • cleat hitch (in less than 15 seconds)

  • Tie the following knots without assistance in less than 20 seconds:
    • reef / square knot
    • clove hitch
    • round turn and two half hitches

    Special Note for Basic Keelboat Standard Certification

    The American Sailing Association's Basic Keelboat Sailing course was recently approved by the National Association of Boating Law Administrators (NASBLA) and the U. S. Coast Guard as a recognized Safe Boating Course. As such, it meets all requirements for mandatory education and licensing for every state in the United States.

    The Items listed below have been added to the Basic Keelboat Sailing Standard published in the ASA International Log Book. Please note that these items will be taught and tested in courses which lead to ASA Basic Keelboat Sailing Certification.

    Apply the Navigation Rules (international and Inland Navigation Rules for prevention of collision) by means of diagrams in the following situations and identify the sailboat or powerboat that is the "stand-on" and "give-way" boat.

    • Boats meeting head-on
    • Define hull identification number
    • Describe the difference between planing and displacement hulls.
    • Describe proper means of waste disposal including penalties for improper disposal and means for notification of authorities in the event of oil spillage.
    • Describe how and when to file a float plan.
    • Describe registration numbers and how to display them.
    • Describe a capacity plate, where to find one and the information which is contained on the plate.
    • Describe an alternate means of determining a boat's passenger capacity
    • State the federal standards for determining intoxication using Blood Alcohol Content (BAC).
    • Give 5 situations which may be considered negligent operations on the part of a boater.
    • Describe when and to whom boating accidents must be reported.
    • Describe under what circumstances an operator must render assistance to another boater in danger.
    • Describe the information an operator should acquire before operating his/her boat in an unfamiliar area. Describe where a boater would get the information in the item above.
    • Be able to identify by color, shape and numbering, lateral aids to navigation.
    • Be able to identify by color, shape and numbering, Safe Water, Information and Regulatory Markers List required safety equipment for recreational vessels between 23 and 40 feet.
    • Describe procedures for safely trailing and launching a boat.
    • Describe sound signals used by recreational vessels and their meanings.
    • Identify the location and color of running lights used by recreational vessels.
    • Describe common anchor types and anchoring procedures.

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    BASIC COASTAL CRUISING STANDARD (103)

      Prerequisites: Basic Keelboat Sailing Certification
      General Description: Able to cruise safely in local and regional waters as both skipper and crew on an auxiliary sailboat of about 20 to 30 feet in length, in moderate winds and sea conditions.

    SAILING KNOWLEDGE

    A Certified Sailor has successfully demonstrated his or her ability to:

    1. Identify and describe the following:

      - Gudgeon- Pintle - Turnbuckle
      - Stern fitting- Tangs- Chainplates
      - Binnacle- Transom- Rudderpost
      - Through-hull fitting - Self-bailing cockpit- -

      GEAR AND EQUIPMENT

    2. List the "Federal equipment carriage requirements" for a 24 foot sailboat with an outboard motor and portable fuel tank.
    3. List the ASA recommended safety equipment for a sailboat heading out on long cruises or into rough weather.
    4. Describe the most important reasons for keeping gear and equipment stowed in assigned places on a boat.
    5. Describe roller and slab reefing with reef grommets and reef points / diamonds.

      SAFETY

    6. Describe the purpose of a safety harness, proper attachment and dangers of improper attachment to a boat.
    7. State the purpose of bow and stern pulpits and lifelines.
    8. Describe federally required navigation lights on boats between sunset and sunrise when under sail, under power, and at anchor.
    9. Describe the three stages of hypothermia and treatments for medium hypothermia.
    10. Describe methods to reduce heat loss for a person in the water and a group of people in the water.
    11. Describe how to prevent undue magnetic influences on the compass.
    12. Identify the common sources of fire and /or explosion and understand the methods for preventing such occurrences, as well as actions to be taken when they do.
    13. Describe U.S. Coast Guard recommended refueling precautions.
    14. Describe a "diver's flag" and alpha flag used to mark persons and vessels engaged in diving.
    15. Describe the danger involved in recharging batteries and setting off flares.
    16. Apply the USCG Navigation Rules 11 through 17 by means of a diagram.
    17. Describe the required and ASA recommended actions and precautions to be taken during times of reduced visibility.

      WEATHER

    18. Interpret marine weather forecasts applicable to the area and apply the information to the candidate's sailing plans for the next six hours.
    19. Interpret what weather changes are forecast for the next six hours and determine what effect these changes will have on the day's planned activities.

      DUTIES OF THE SKIPPER AND CREW

    20. Identify the main responsibilities of the skipper and crew as indicated below:

        SKIPPER:
        • Safety of the crew and boat
        • Ensure the crew's knowledge of operating procedures and location of all lifesaving and other safety equipment prior to getting underway
        • Assign duties and instruction
        • Ensure proper /safe use of domestic equipment (head, stove, etc.)

        CREW
        • Obey skipper
        • Assist in the safe operation of the boat
        • Keep a lookout and immediately report any dangers on the water and in the boat.

      SEAMANSHIP

    21. Describe the correct sail combinations to carry under various wind and sea conditions.
    22. Describe the dangers of a lee shore.
    23. Read and interpret the following information from the NOAA nautical chart of the local are.
      • Depth of water
      • Types of bottom (sand, rock, clay, etc.)
      • Underwater / surface hazards (kelp, cable, rock, shoals, cribs, wrecks, currents)
      • Buoys and what they signify
      • Lights
      • Beacons
      • Distance scale

    24. Describe:
      • A good anchorage
      • Suitable ground tackle and scope when anchoring for lunch
      • Suitable ground tackle, scope and the appropriate lights when anchoring overnight

    25. Describe the immediate action to be taken when:

      - A leak develops- Steering fails - Anchor drags
      - Propeller fouls- Halyard breaks- Rigging fails
      - Running aground- Grounding at anchor-

    26. Describe one commonly accepted use for each of the following knots:

      - bowline- clove hitch - figure eight
      - sheet bend- reef knot- Round turn & two half hitches

      SAILING SKILLS

      A Certified Sailor has successfully demonstrated his or her ability to:

      PRELIMINARIES

    27. Demonstrate on land the correct method of putting on a personal flotation device in the water.
    28. Carry out a check of the vessel's gear and equipment in accordance with legal requirements and ASA recommendations and demonstrate the use and care of domestic equipment.
    29. Demonstrate safe winch techniques with particular attention to:
      • High possible strain on sheets and halyards
      • Overriding turns (overrides) and how to clear them
      • Position of hands and fingers
      • Winch handle fitting, removal and storage
      • Halyard breaks / stops
      • Anchor winches / windlass

    30. Perform the ASA outboard motor checklist prior to starting an outboard motor.

      BOAT HANDLING UNDER POWER

    31. Start an auxiliary engine observing commonly accepted safety practices.
    32. Come to a full stop with the bow one half length away from a buoy using reverse. The objective of this exercise is to know how much distance is required to bring a sailboat to a full stop. The sailboat is to be kept o a straight course while this exercise is being carried out.
    33. Maneuver a sailboat under power to a position not more than two feet alongside and parallel to a dock (port side and starboard side to) without the aid of lines and without the bow passing a given mark at any time during the maneuver.

      MAN OVERBOARD

    34. Demonstrate a skipper's actions / commands while under power from the time a member of the crew falls overboard without warning until the crew is safely recovered. A float should be used for this exercise. The man overboard is considered as not wearing a lifejacket and is able to assist himself. Included in this Standard are the following minimum requirements: lookout, alertness, life ring/ marking, slow, controlled speed approaching the float, crew control, and engine control.
    35. Stop an auxiliary engine (outboard motor) and secure it for the night observing commonly accepted safety practices.
    36. Anchor in water more than ten feet in depth securely enough so the anchor does not drag with engine at half-throttle astern.
    37. Raise anchor with boat ready and get underway under power using commonly accepted practices.

      BOAT HANDLING UNDER SAIL

      POINTS OF SAIL

    38. Function as helmsman and crew giving correct commands and proper responses while demonstrating the proper techniques of close hauled sailing, reaching (all three points), running, coming about and gybing, heading up, bearing away, luffing, and reducing heel on all points of sail
    39. Describe proper preparatory commands and commands of execution for all sailing skills included in this standard.

      REEFING / HEAVING TO

    40. Reduce sail by reefing and shake out a reef while keeping vessel under control and on course.
    41. Heave to and get underway again.

      MAN OVERBOARD

    42. Demonstrate a skipper's actions and commands while under sail from the time a member of the crew falls overboard without warning until the crew is safely recovered. A float may be used for this exercise. The person overboard is considered as not wearing a lifejacket and is able to assist himself.

      Included in the Standard are the following minimum requirements: alertness, life ring / marking, lookout, slow, controlled speed approaching the man / float, and crew control. The crew can be three or ore but the candidate is to describe the actions to be taken of one member of a two person crew falls overboard with the boat under sail.

    43. Describe at least two methods of getting a person out of the water and back on board.

      STEERING

    44. Sail an ordered compass course for 5 minutes without varying more than 10 degrees from the ordered heading.

      MAKING FAST AND SNUGGING DOWN / SECURING
      TO A DOCK AND MOORING

    45. Secure a boat to various dock configurations so as to provide limited movement and set out fenders correctly.
    46. Take extra precautions and secure a vessel for the night at a dock and at a mooring.

      KNOTS

    47. Tie the following knots within 15 seconds:
      • Bowline
      • Reef Knot
      • Sheet Bend
      • Clove Hitch
      • Round Turn and Half Hitches

    48. Tie the following knots within 7 seconds:
      • Figure Eight
      • Cleat Hitch

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    BAREBOAT CHARTERING STANDARD (104)
    (Intermediate Coastal Cruising Standards)

    Prerequisites: Basic Keelboat Sailing and Basic Coastal Cruising Certification
    General Description: An advanced cruising Standard for individuals with cruising experience. The individual can act as skipper or crew of a 30 - 50 foot boat sailing by day in coastal waters. The Standard includes knowledge of boat systems and maintenance procedures.

    SAILING KNOWLEDGE

    A Certified Sailor has successfully demonstrated his or her ability to:

    PLANNING

    1. State and discuss the following:
      • The fuel tank capacity and powering range of the candidate's boat.
      • Factors which affect the range under power
      • The boat's water capacity and crew's minimum daily water requirements
      • The causes, prevention and treatments for sea sickness
      • The appropriate clothing for sailing (comfort and safety)
      • Menu planning and provisioning and suitability to the day's activities
      • The minimum contents of a first aid kit for a one week cruise
      • The spare engine parts for a one week cruise
      • The documents and procedures required to cross international borders and how to determine the above for any cruising location

      LIVING AFLOAT

    2. Discuss galley procedures that minimize the danger of fire, scalding or other galley accidents.
    3. Use common cooking systems (stoves and fuel(.

      WEATHER

    4. Describe the sea breeze and land breeze effect.
    5. Identify conditions which cause fog.

      SEAMANSHIP

    6. Describe the use of a radar reflector.
    7. Describe and discuss what to do when (under power);
      • The engine cooling water fails to flow
      • The engine fails in a crowded anchorage where safe sailing is impossible
      • The engine fails in a busy channel

    8. Describe two methods of getting a man overboard back on board.
    9. Describe the information required and the procedure for tying a boat to a fixed dock in areas with a large tidal range.
    10. State the factors to be considered before allowing anyone to go swimming while at anchor
    11. Describe how to secure the boat with an anchor on the bow or stern with the other end made fast to a dock or shore.
    12. Describe the use of an anchor to hold boat off a windward dock when abreast of that dock.
    13. Describe methods of rafting at anchor and potential dangers.
    14. Describe the actions taken to prevent the dinghy from bumping the boat in the night.
    15. Describe the proper operating procedures for the marine head and list precautions that prevent malfunction.
    16. Describe the following common courtesies and customs of yachtsmen:
      • Permission to board
      • Permission to come alongside
      • Courtesy in crossing adjacent boats when rafted
      • Right of first boat at an anchorage
      • Keeping clear of boats racing
      • Flag etiquette: national flag, courtesy flag, burgee / house flag
      • Offering assistance to other yachtsmen in trouble

      SAILING SKILLS

      A Certified Sailor has successfully demonstrated his or her ability to:
    17. Perform routine daily and weekly maintenance procedures on an engine.
    18. Locate and check condition of all USCG required equipment aboard.
    19. Maneuver the boat under power in a confined space.
    20. Stop the bow of the boat within four feet of a fixed marker in various conditions while under power (pick up a mooring buoy).
    21. Dock stern or bow to dock or shore using bow or stern anchor.
    22. Apply 72 COLREGS (Navigation Rules), rules 1 - 19.
    23. Demonstrate basic use of the VHF.
    24. Check that all systems and equipment on the boat are in working order: engine, electrical system, stove, electronics, sails, hull, deck hardware, ground tackle, and through-hulls and demonstrate knowledge of safety relating to them.
    25. Demonstrate the proper operation of a marine stove and he proper way to extinguish a fire.
    26. Demonstrate suitable methods and precautions while towing a dinghy.
    27. Sail a compass course with sails set properly while reaching and running.
    28. Demonstrate two different ways of returning to a man overboard in moderate winds.
    29. Plot a course and determine compass heading and E.T.A.
    30. Read a nautical chart and identify corresponding landmarks and aids to navigation.
    31. Take a fix using visual bearings.
    32. Determine the depth above or below chart datum using tide tables.
    33. Pilot a boat into an unfamiliar harbor or anchorage by day using a nautical chart and tidal information.
    34. Obtain and interpret the marine forecast.
    35. Set and retrieve two anchors set in a Bahamian mooring (for and aft).
    36. Has acted as skipper and crew on a live-aboard cruise of at least 48 hours.

      KNOTS

    37. Tie a rolling hitch and a trucker's hitch in 20 seconds or less.

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    COASTAL NAVIGATION STANDARD (105)

    Prerequisites:None
    General Description: Able to demonstrate the navigational theoryrequired to safely navigate a sailing vessel in coastal or inland waters. There is no Sailing Skills part to this Standard and practical application of this Sailing Knowledge is found in the Advanced Coastal Cruising Standard.

    SAILING KNOWLEDGE

    A Certified Sailor has successfully demonstrated his or her ability to:
    1. Explain the chart symbols and conventions on U.S. nautical charts in accordance with the terminology of chart #1.
    2. Identify a source of official U.S. Coast Guard navigation publications.
    3. List the publications required for prudent navigation in the local area including the following ASA minimum requirements:
      • Large scale charts of the area and chart #1
      • Federal Requirements for Recreational Boats
      • USCG Navigation Rules
      • State small vessel regulations
      • Local rules and regulations, if applicable
      • Local sailing directions
      • Tide and current tables, if applicable
      • List of lights, buoys, and fog signals
      • Radio aids to navigation (if using radio or RDF)

    4. List the instruments required for prudent navigation in the local area including the following minimum requirements:
      • Steering compass and deviation table
      • Handbearing compass and / or pelorus
      • Binoculars
      • Protractor or parallel rule
      • Depth sounder or leadline
      • Pencil, eraser, and notebook
      • Dividers
      • Watch or clock
      • Log / Knotmeter

    5. Describe the purpose of "Notice to Mariners."
    6. Use the tide and current tables to find:
      • Times and heights of tides at reference and secondary ports.
      • Direction and rate of current at referenced and secondary stations.

    7. Convert courses and bearings between true, magnetic, and compass.
    8. Check compass deviation by means such as a transit bearing.
    9. Plot a dead reckoning position on a chart using speed, time and course to steer.
    10. Allow for the effect of current and leeway to plot the estimated position.
    11. Determine a course to steer which takes into account known current and leeway.
    12. Determine current given the course steered and speed and two observed positions.
    13. Plot a chart position from terrestrial objects using:
      • Two or more bearings on different objects taken at one time.
      • Bearings at different times (i.e. a running fix).
      • One bearing and transit range.
      • One distance (i.e. a sounding or dipping a light) and one bearing.

    14. Use the above techniques to chart a course of at least 20 miles and 3 course changes. <
    15. Explain the terms and characteristics used for lighted navigation aids.
    16. Explain the significance of shapes, colors, and lights used in the buoyage system.

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    ADVANCED COASTAL CRUISING STANDARD (106)

    Prerequisites: Basic Keelboat Sailing, Basic Coastal Cruising, Bareboat Chartering and Coastal Navigation Certification
    General Description: Able to safely act as skipper and crew of a sailing vessel about 30 to 50 feet in length 'm coastal and inland waters, in any conditions.

    SAILING KNOWLEDGE

    A Certified Sailor has successfully demonstrated his or her ability to:

    1. Describe the theory of true and apparent wind.
    2. Describe the theory of sailing using force diagrams. Graphically find the center of effort and center of resistance of sails and keel, respectively.
    3. Describe with the aid of diagrams the causes of lee and weather helm and methods of correcting them. Include the reasons for preference of slight weather helm, sail selection (including full sails or reefed sails), mast position and mast rake.
    4. Describe sail shapes and sail interactions as needed for different wind strengths and points of sail. Describe the effects on sail shape and sail interactions when adjusting the following:
  • - Luff tension- Outhaul- Downhaul
    - Leech line- Boomvang- Cunningham
    - Backstay tension- Jib fairleads- Jib sheet tension
    - Mainsheet- Traveller-

    Weather
  • Identify how to use a barometer and a thermometer either singly or together to assist in predicting weather.
  • Describe cirrus, cirrostratus, altocumulus, stratocumulus, cumulonimbus and cumulus clouds and the weather expected to be associated with each.
  • Describe local weather in relation to thermal winds and prevailing winds.
  • Describe three sources of weather information available to yachtsmen in the United States.

    Seamanship
  • Describe the proper selection of sails on a given boat for all weather conditions and give reasons for the selection made.
  • Describe the appropriate heavy weather precautions for the boat selected and describe how they are carried out. Include sail changes, use of special equipment (safety harness, sea anchor), doubling up of gear, special checks in areas liable to chafe, stowage of equipment (above and below decks), additional checks on condition of bilge, special arrangements for towing dinghy/tender (if used), problems of fatigue, selection of clothing, and the need of at least two on deck at all times.
  • Describe all the steps to be taken by skipper and crew for "heaving to" and "lying ahull."
  • Describe the methods Of rafting at anchor and the possible problems with day and night rafting.
  • Describe how to prevent the tender/dinghy from riding up and bumping the vesselís hull while anchored at night.
  • Describe step by step how to secure a boat overnight with one anchor and stem made fast to the shore or dock.
  • Describe two methods of using a second anchor to reduce swinging.
  • Describe four different methods of recovering an anchor which is fouled on the bottom.
  • Describe when and how to use a trip line and an anchor buoy.
  • Describe when and how to set an anchor watch and the responsibilities of such a watch.
  • Describe how to:
  • List from memory the visual distress signals listed in the applicable U. S. Coast Guard publications.
  • Describe how the boat should be handled and what actions should be taken when the following emergencies occur while under sail-
  • Describe how the boat should be handled and what remedial action should be taken when the following emergencies occur while under power:
  • State the fuel tank capacity and range of the selected boat and thefactors that could affect its range.
  • State the water tank capacity on your boat and the minimum water requirement per person-
  • Describe the skipper's responsibilities and action for the following common courtesies and customs of yachtsmen:
  • List the documents required and the procedures followed when leaving and entering U.S. territorial waters.

    Engineering
  • Describe and demonstrate the appropriate collective measures for the following common engine problems as applicable to the boat selected:
  • Describe when and how to carry out an oil change in the engine selected.
  • Describe the minimum preseason maintenance and checks given to the following:

    Safety
  • Describe recommended permanent and temporary installation methods of grounding for lightning.
  • State the factors you would consider before allowing anyone to go swimming while the boat is at anchor.
  • State the danger of overhead power lines.
  • Describe the uses, capabilities and limitations of a portable radar reflector.

    SAILING SKILLS

    Boat Handling Under Sail (by Day and Night, 30 hours minimum ASA instructional program)

    A Certified Sailor has successfully demonstrated his or her ability to:

  • Act as helmsman and demonstrate the proper techniques of beating, reaching, running, tacking, jibing, heading up, heading down (bearing away) and luffing in approximately 20 knots of wind.
  • Work to weather to best advantage using wind shifts, tides and local geography.
  • Sail a compass course (within 10 degrees) with sails ed.
  • Demonstrate correct methods of towing a dinghy.
  • Properly carry out nighttime man overboard procedures.
  • Demonstrate correct procedures for hoisting, setting, trimmings, jibing, dousing and packing a spinnaker.*
  • Anchor, weigh anchor, pick up and cast off moorings while acting as helmsman and/or crew.
  • Demonstrate how to take a sounding using two different methods.
  • Stand a navigation watch during a passage of about 20 miles by night and 20 miles by day and demonstrate all of the skims required for the ASA Coastal Navigation Standard.

    *Spinnaker work is optional. The certifying instructor will indicate spinnaker use in the certification box on page


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    CELESTIAL NAVIGATION STANDARD (107)

    Prerequisite: None General Description: Able to demonstrate the Celestial Navigation theory required to safely navigate a sailboat on an offshore passage. The practical application is conducted in the Offshore Passagemaking Standard.

    A Certified Sailor has successfully demonstrated his or her ability to:

    1. Convert longitude into time.
    2. Convert standard time and zone time to GMT and vice versa.
    3. Calculate the zone time given longitude.
    4. Calculate the chronometer (or watch) error given a previous error and the daily rate.
    5. Apply the corrections for index error, dip of the horizon, and total correction to convert sextant altitudes of the sun, stars, planets, and moon to true altitudes.
    6. Calculate the time of meridian passage of the sun and calculate the boat's latitude from the observed meridian altitude of the sun.
    7. Determine the latitude at twilight by means of the Pole Star.
    8. Solve the navigational triangle using a navigation table and show all appropriate work.,
    9. Plot celestial lines of position on a Mercator projection or on a universal plotting sheet
    10. Calculate the times (ship's and GMT) of sunrise, sunset and twilight.
    11. Determine the approximate azimuths and altitudes of the navigational stars and planets at twilight.
    12. Calculate and plot the lines of position obtained from observations of several celestial bodies at twilight and thus find the boat's position.
    13. Advance the LOP obtained from a sun sight to another LOP obtained from the sun at a later time and find the boat's position using a running fix (sun-run-sun).
    14. Calculate the true bearing of a low altitude celestial body in order to determine the error and deviation of the compass.

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    OFFSHORE PASSAGEMAKING STANDARD (108)

    Prerequisites:All previous Keelboat and Navigation Standards
    General Description: The student is able to safely act as skipper or crew in a sailing vessel on offshore passages requiring celestial navigation.

    SAILING KNOWLEDGE

    A Certified Sailor has successfully demonstrated his orher ability to:

    Passage Planning

    1. Plan a passage across the North Atlantic or Pacific and state the advantages, disadvantages and hazards of various routes. "Ocean Passages for the World", Climatic Charts, Great Circle Plotting Charts, plotting instruments, etc., must be used.
    2. Plot a series of rhumb lines on a mercator chart to approximate a great circle route.
    3. List the publications required for prudent navigation on an offshore passage to include the following:

      - Coastal charts and publications- Work sheets
      - Ocean Passages for the World- Nautical almanac
      - Sight reduction tables- Plotting sheets

      Voyage Preparation

    4. State the essential factors to be considered when selecting a vessel for an offshore ocean passage of at least 1000 miles:

      - Hull shape- Hull construction- Displacement
      - Rudder- Keel- Rig
      - Machinery- Water capacity- Fuel capacity
      - Sails- Interior layout-

    5. List all items essential for minor repairs to vessel and rigging.
    6. Describe various items required to prevent chafe.
    7. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of three self steering methods/devices.
    8. List all basic items necessary to repair sails.
    9. Plan meals for a minimum of four people on a seven day offshore passage.
    10. Describe the proper methods of preserving/storing food and the expected storage life of all food.
    11. State the factors to be considered when selecting crew members for an offshore passage:

      - Health - Attitude- Compatibility
      - Experience- Physical capability-

    12. Describe suitable clothing for the voyage.
    13. State a source of obtaining advanced first aid information while on an offshore passage.
    14. Identify and describe the basic treatment of potential medical problems.
    15. Describe methods of preventing injury to the cook or nearby persons while cooking at sea.
    16. List the items carried in a proper first aid kit for an offshore passage.
    17. Prepare and file a passage plan.

      Shipboard Routines

    18. Describe three (3) watchkeeping systems and their applicatior4 advantages and disadvantages.
    19. Describe alternate watchkeeping arrangements in the event crew members are incapacitated.
    20. Describe the duties of the watch and off watch.
    21. Establish a routine, schedule to periodically maintain the following items:

      - Bilges - Sea cocks- Rigging
      - - Hatches- Helm
      - Galley & supplies- Fuel and water- Machinery
      - Safety equipment- Electronic equipment-

    22. Set up a routine schedule for vessel cleaning.

      Emergency Procedures

    23. Describe how to rig a trailing man overboard line with an alarm.
    24. Describe an alternative method of alerting the crew to a man overboard situation. State other emergency situations when you should limit the use of this device.
    25. Describe what actions should be taken when a man overboard is not located on the first pass.
    26. Describe how to organize the crew for a routine fire drill.
    27. Describe possible methods of jury rigging your vessel in the event of dismasting and what course you would then assume.
    28. Describe proper actions you would take after your vessel has been struck by lightning.
    29. List essential survival items to be kept in a standby kit in the event you are forced to abandon ship offshore.
    30. Describe additional items useful for your survival and rescue.
    31. State the dangers you might encounter in a small rubber liferaft at sea.
    32. List safety equipment you would cam in addition to that required by the United States Coast Guard.

      Rules of the Road
    33. Know and apply the 1972 International Regulation for Preventing Collision at Sea (Navigation Rules) quickly and correctly in order to maintain safe navigation in any waters day and night-
    34. List eight of ten international distress signals.

      SAILING SKILLS

    35. Acted as skipper and crew on an offshore passage of no less than 72 hours and 100 NM without touching land.

      A Certified Sailor has successfully demonstrated his or her ability to:

    36. Obtain a celestial fix using a sun-run-sun or three (3) celestial bodies.
    37. Obtain a celestial heading cheek.
    38. Apply all sailing knowledge stated in the ASA Celestial Navigation Standard.

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    BASIC SMALL BOAT SAILING STANDARD (110)

    Prerequisites:None
    General Description:Able to sail a centerboard or multihull sailboat in light to moderate winds and sea conditions in familiar waters without supervision. A preparatory Standard with no auxiliary power or navigation skills required.

    It is a daysailing standard on monohull or multihull sailboats less than 20 feet in length and without a fixed, weighted keel. Seperate Basic Small Boat Certifications are provided for centerboard and multihull sailboats.

    SAILING KNOWLEDGE

    A Certified Sailor has successfully demonstrated his orher ability to:

    1. Identify and describe the following:

      - hull- deck- bow & stern
      - transom- mast- mast step
      - boom- gooseneck- shrouds
      - forestay- centerboard- daggerboard trunk
      - spreader- -

    2. Identify and describe the functions of the following items on a sailboat:

      - mainsheet- jib sheet(s)- rudder
      - tiller- traveller- tiller extension
      - halyard(s)- outhaul- cunningham
      - boomvang- downhault- boom topping lift
      - jib fairlead- shackle- bailers
      - cleats- telltails- stays & shrouds
      - hiking straps- fenders- buoyancy tanks
      - winches- centerboard/daggerboard - leeboard

    3. Define the following terms:

      - portt- starboard- skipper & crew
      - helmsman- forward- aft
      - tacking- gybing- running rigging
      - ahead- astern- standing rigging
      - windward- leeward- beam
      - abeam- heel-

    4. Identify the following sails and parts of a sail:

      - mainsail- jib - spinnaker- luff
      - leech- head- foot- tack
      - clew- battens- bolt rope- jib hanks
      - batten pockets- - -

    5. Describe the following terms and points of sail and identify them from diagrams:

      - head to wind- in-irons- luffing
      - starboard tack- port tack- close hauled
      - close reach- beam reach- broad reach
      - running- heading up- heading down
      - windward boat- leeward boat- sailing by the lee

    6. Apply the "Rules of the Road"(International and Inland "Navigation Rules" for prevention of collision) for:

      • port tack and starboard tack sailboats
      • overtaking situation
      • windward and leeward sailboat
      • powerboat and sailboat
      • combinations of the above

    7. Describe the danger and common location of overhead power lines as they relate to sailing and trailering.]
    8. Describe the danger of cold and hot weather (hypothermia and heat exhausion) and why a sailor should always wear shoes and life preserver.
    9. Describe and react to local navigation hazards including tides and/or currents and how to avoid or reduce their effects.
    10. Use the personal international distress signal (raising and lowering both arms at the same time).

      SAILING SKILLS

      A certified Sailor has demonstrated his or her ability to:

    11. Tread water for a minimum of 5 (five) minutes and swim a minimum of 100 yards without touching any object.

      Gear and Equipment:

    12. Select, put on and properly secure a personal flotation device on land and in the water.
    13. Select proper clothing for sailing.
    14. Properly rig, launch, and retrieve the specified boat (dry sail -hoist, beach rack - dolly, dock, or mooring).
    15. Safely get into and out of the specified boat at a dock in shallow water and in open water.
    16. Properly stow and secure all loose gear and rigging on the candidate's boat.
    17. Without an instructor onboard and without direction, while acting as helmsman (and again as crew), sail away from a dock and mooring, sail an upwind and a downwind course and return to the dosk and mooring in familiar waters, in light to moderate winds & sea conditions.
    18. Clear halyards and sails, hoist the basic sails, set appropriate luff tension, checkn for stopper knots and secure halyard tails.
    19. Leave a dock, mooring or beach completely prepared, in control in various wind directions.
    20. Select and use the correct approach on returning to the mooring, beach or dock while under control, at slow speed, and with various wind directions.
    21. Sail closer to the womd as helmsman (on commad).
    22. Quickly trim sails correctly as crew.
    23. Use proper commands: "heading-up, sheet in" ... "sheeting in".
    24. Steer away from wind as helsman (on Command).
    25. Ease and then trim sails correctly as crew.
    26. Use proper commands: "heading down, ease sheets" .."easing sheets".
    27. Quickly bring the specified boat to a close reach as helmsman (on command) and immediately ease the sheets (luff sails) to stop the boat as crew.
    28. Place the specified boat "in irons" (head to wind and not moving) as helmsman (as well as crew) and then sail off in a predetermined direction using proper rudder control and backing of the sails.
    29. Select and maintain a given course without changing the point of sail as helmsman.
    30. Trim sails correclty as crew.
    31. Maintain proper for-and-aft boat trim as helsman and crew.
    32. Reduce excessive heel (as helmsman and crew) using:
      • weight distribution,
      • rudder control,
      • sail trim and
      • combination of these methods.

    33. Select as helmsman the new close hauled course prior to a tack and then hold the new course following the tack while controlling the main.
    34. Release the jib sheet as crew and trim the new sheet at the proper time and control the main when asked.
    35. Use proper commands: "ready about" - "ready" - "helms-a-lee" or "hard-a-lee" - "trim the course".
    36. Select as helmsman the new broad reach course prior to a gybe while controlling the main.
    37. Release the jib sheet as crew and trim the new sheet at the proper time and control the main when asked.
    38. Use proper commands:
      "ready to gybe" - "ready" - "gybe-ho" - "trim to course".

      Steering Rules

    39. Correctly apply as helmsman the basic steering and sailing rules governing:
      • port tack and starboard tack sailboats
      • windwars and leeward sailboats
      • overtaking situation
      • powerboats and sailboat
      • combination of the above

      Man Overboard

    40. Demonstrate as helmsman/skipper and describe the proper actions to be taken from the time a person falls overboard without warning until the crew mwmber is safely recovered over the transom or over the side. Speed at this level, while important, is secondary to safety in perform,ing this procedure.

      Capsize and Recovery

    41. Demonstrate safe capsize recovery (righting) techniques for a capsize candidates's boat. The "scoop method" may be used id appropriate.
    42. Steer a sailboat by the lee for 100 yards without gybimg.
    43. Steer a sailboat backwards for 20 yards with sails backed.
    44. Accept and secure a towline with sails up well as with sails down.
    45. Pass on a towline while underway.
    46. Lower and secure jib while boat is nearly head to wind.
    47. Lower and furl (with Assistance) main neatly.
    48. Properly fold and bag (with assistance) all sails.

      Knots

    49. Securely tie a sailboat to a dock and mooring.
    50. Describe the function and tie the following knots without assistance:
      • bowline (20 secinds or less)
      • figure eights (15 seconds or less)
      • cleat hitch (15 seconds or less)
      • round turn and two half hitches (20 seconds or less)

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    TRAILERABLE MULTIHULL STANDARD (112)

    Prerequisites:Basic Keelboat (101)

    ASA 113 may be taught in conjunction with Basic Coastal Cruising (103) on a multihull sailboat or as an additional course after Basic Coastal Cruising (103) has been accomplished on a monohull. In either case, ALL MATERIAL IN BOTH STANDARDS (103 & 113) MUST BE TAUGHT AND/OR TESTED BEFORE 113 CAN BE AWARDD.

    General Description:certified sailors are able to cruise safely in local and regional waters as both skipper and crew on an auxiliary multihull sailboat of about 20-30 feet in length, in moderate wind conditions. The standard includes those skills different and/or unique to a multihull, either catamaran or trimaran including folding and trailering.

    SAILING KNOWLEDGE

    A Certified Sailor has successfully demonstrated his orher ability to:

    1. Identify and describe the following hardware/terms:

      - Ama- Akak- Bridgedeck
      - Cabin- Bridle-line- Catamaran
      - Crossbeams- Float- Full wing deck
      - Open wing deck- Partial wing deck- Hull(s)
      - Main hull- Safety nets - Seagull striker
      - Stability- Stability Curves- Three point rig
      - Trimaran- Wing deck-

    2. Describe the weight carrying characteristics of small cruising multihulls and how weight distribution affects safety and performance.
    3. Describe the differences in performance between multihullls and monohulls of about the same size.
    4. Describe the accommodations of a typical 20-30 foot multihull and how comfort and safety will differ from a monohull.
    5. Identify differences in ship's system between multihulls and monohulls.
    6. Describe shoal draft and its effect on planning and sailing.
    7. Describe the danger of capsizing, how to recognize the danger and how to prevent it.
    8. Discuss the characteristics of a multihull which determine windage and the effects of windage on course and speed.
    9. Discusss how multihull design affects turning radius.
    10. Describe a typical center/dagger board installation on a multihull and how they affect performance.
    11. Describe options for gear stowage and proper stowing procedures.
    12. Describe how and where a safety harness tether would attach to a multihull.
    13. Discuss the various sail cobinations and how they affect balance of a multihull.
    14. Discuss the differences of multihull heavy weather sailing practices (adventages and disadventages) including the following:
      • Lying ahull
      • Heaving-to
      • Speed controls
      • Running off and standing on.

    15. Describe and discuss the methods of rafting multihulls and the limitations involved.
    16. Describe trailering and launching characteristics and techniques of a multihull.

      SAILING SKILLS

    17. Demonstrate operation of all folding hull systems.
    18. Demonstrate operatin of all mass stepping procedures.
    19. Assure all folding/retracting systems are in the correct position and locked prior to departure.
    20. Assure all rigging is secured, all removable pins locked prior to sailing.

      Boat Handling Under Power

    21. Stop the bow of the boat within four feet of a marker while maneuvering under power. Perform the exercise upwind, downwind and with the wind across the bow.
    22. Maneuver the boat under power in a confined space, noting the effects of wind and current. If applicable, perform the same exercise in folded configuration as well.
    23. Maneuver the boat within 2 feet of, and parallel to a dick. Define and carry out a bail-out plan. If applicable, perform the same exercise in folded configuration as well.
    24. Turn the boat in the tightest possible circle to determine its turning radius.
    25. Repeat item 24 turning in the opposite direction and comparing the differences between both turns.
    26. Repeat items 24 and 25 while making stern way (going backwards).
    27. Steer a straight course of at least 10 boat lengths in reverse using moderate speed.

      Man Overboard

    28. Demonstrate a skipper's actions and commands while under power from the time a member of the crew falls overboard without warning until the crew is safely recovered.
    29. Describe at least two methods of getting a person out of the water and back on board a multihull.

      Boat Handling Under Sail

      Points of Sail

    30. Function as helmsman and crew giving correct commands and proper responses while demonstrating the proper techniques of close hauled sailing, reaching (all three points), running, tacking and gybing, heading up, bearing away and luffing. Note the differences and likenesses of sailing a multihull vs. monohull.
    31. Sail an ordered compass ccourse for 5 minutes without varying more than 10 degrees from the heading.
    32. Sail a figure 8 course between two buoys noting acceleration/deceleration times and momentum during turns.

      Man Overboard

    33. Demonstrate a skipper's actions and commands while under sail from the time a member of the crew falls overboard without warning until the crew is safely recovered. The quick-stop method is suggested.

      Heavy Weather

      Reefing/heaving-to

    34. Reduce sail by reefing and shake out a reef while keeping the wessel under control and on course.
    35. Heave-to and get underway again, noting the vessel's motion at different angles to the wind.

      Anchoring

    36. Use proper anchoring techniques to anchor using the following methods:
      • Single bow anchor and bridle
      • Single bow anchor and stern to the beach (Med style)
      • Beaching with consideration of daggerboard/centerboard, rudder and hull mounted electronics. (optional)
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